Alcoholic Ketoacidosis StatPearls NCBI Bookshelf

  • By PureAire
  • 24th July, 2020

General literature reviews, single case reports, and letters were also excluded. All remaining papers were retrieved and the reference lists hand searched for any additional information sources. Limiting the amount of alcohol you drink will help prevent this condition. The prevalence of AKA in a given community correlates with the incidence and distribution of alcohol abuse in that community. The metabolism of alcohol itself is a probable contributor to the ketotic state.

  • All remaining papers were retrieved and the reference lists hand searched for any additional information sources.
  • The majority of papers detected by this search focus primarily on diabetes mellitus and its complications, and were excluded.
  • This case demonstrates the importance of considering AKA in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with non-specific symptoms, significant metabolic acidosis and a history of alcohol excess.
  • In starvation ketosis, a mild ketosis is noted to develop in most after 12–24 h of fasting.
  • Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a common reason for investigation and admission of alcohol dependent patients in UK emergency departments.

Alcohol produces structural changes in human liver mitochondria within days. Fulop and Hoberman5 argued that a functional abnormality is more likely to be responsible, as even severe AKA usually improves rapidly with treatment. They attributed this to the administration of therapy (intravenous dextrose) rather than the withdrawal of the toxin, ethanol. Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a problem caused by drinking a lot of alcohol without eating food.

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

The patient should have blood glucose checked on the initial presentation. The next important step in the management of AKA is to give isotonic fluid resuscitation. Dextrose is required to break the cycle of ketogenesis and increase insulin secretion. The dextrose will also increase glycogen stores and diminish counterregulatory hormone levels. It is essential to administer thiamine before any glucose administration to avoid Wernicke’s encephalopathy preci[itation. If severe hypokalemia is present dextrose containing fluids can be held until potassium levels are normalized.

Prolonged used of alcohol can result in cirrhosis, or permanent scarring of the liver. Cirrhosis of the liver can cause exhaustion, leg swelling, and nausea. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can develop when you drink excessive amounts of alcohol for a long period of time.

Ketoacidosis associated with alcoholism in non-diabetic subjects

Clinicians underestimate the degree of ketonemia if they rely solely on the results of laboratory testing. You can prevent alcoholic ketoacidosis by limiting your alcohol intake. You can learn how to reduce your alcohol intake or eliminate it altogether.

  • Alcoholic ketoacidosis is the buildup of ketones in the blood due to alcohol use.
  • Not eating enough or vomiting can lead to periods of starvation.
  • He was given IV valium for alcohol withdrawal, and thiamine, folate, and phosphate were repleted.
  • Joining a local chapter of Alcoholics Anonymous may provide you with the support you need to cope.

Antiemetics such as ondansetron or metoclopramide may also be given to control nausea and vomiting. All alcoholic patients presenting with acute illness should be offered contact with addiction services prior to or following discharge wherever possible. All chronic alcohol misusers attending the ED should receive intravenous B vitamins as recommended by The Royal College of Physicians.23 Strenuous efforts must be made to exclude concomitant pathology. DiscussionThis case highlights the importance of diagnosing patients with AKA and providing the appropriate treatment. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, patients improve rapidly and serious complications are prevented. They provide some energy to your cells, but too much may cause your blood to become too acidic.

Alcoholic ketoacidosis: a case report and review of the literature

Patients are generally dehydrated, and serum glucose can be low, normal, or mildly elevated. An anion gap metabolic acidosis with ketosis and electrolyte abnormalities are usually present on laboratory evaluation. Management includes fluid resuscitation, glucose and vitamin supplementation, electrolyte repletion, and evaluation for other conditions. People who consume a lot of alcohol during one occasion often vomit repeatedly and stop eating.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a cytosolic enzyme, metabolizes alcohol to acetaldehyde in hepatocytes. Acetaldehyde is metabolized further to acetic acid by aldehyde dehydrogenase. Both steps require the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This goal can usually be achieved through the administration of dextrose and saline solutions (see Treatment).

Who Is at Risk for Alcoholic Ketoacidosis?

It is a clinical diagnosis with patients presenting with tachycardia, tachypnea, dehydration, agitation, and abdominal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of alcoholic ketoacidosis and explains the role of the interprofessional team in managing patients with this condition. Toxicity from methanol or ethylene glycol is an important differential diagnosis.

alcoholic ketoacidosis

Medicines may be given to prevent alcohol withdrawal symptoms. It most often occurs in a malnourished person who drinks large amounts of alcohol every day. If you are diagnosed with alcoholic ketoacidosis, your recovery will depend on a number of factors.